How Sustainable is Alpine Dairy?

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By Matthew Checker, BSc Ecology, MSc Human Ecology


A simple photographic and observational documentation was made of 5 sites used for Alpine dairy farming grazing, and adjacent ungrazed areas in the subalpine German and Austrian Alps (up to 1759m) to get an impression of the stability, health and biodiversity of vegetation and soils in each case. The results showed strong evidence of erosion, compaction of plants and soil in areas grazed. Biodiversity reduction is also likely in the long-term – all due to the grazing of small numbers of cattle on a large area.┬á The ungrazed areas all showed denser and higher vegetation growth and no erosion (not adjacent to- and caused by hiking tracks) with the exception of a slope over 60 0 which showed both lusher vegetation interspersed with strong signs of erosion. The steepness and deforested nature of this slope are likely to be the major erosion causes in this case. In view of the above issues that are accentuated by alpine ecologies, together with the pressures of accelerating climate change, food insecurity and related biodiversity reduction, health costs and ethics towards other sentient beings, it is urged that we provide farmers with funding for environmental stewardship and/or plant-based agriculture. Also urged is that society plays its part in the wider context through dietary change, advocacy and political pressure to make this practically realisable within the short window of opportunity that remains to protect our biosphere. A transparent and honest re-evaluation of abstract notions like “cultural landscapes” and traditions are also required.


Aiplspitz – J├Ągerkamp, near Geitau 03.08.2022 (max 1759m)


Erosion and compaction is caused by a number of different factors which include intensive hiking which might be assessed as the culprit whilst looking at the hiking paths in this photo.. That caused by grazing animals is less visible at this range but covers a much wider area. The slopes adjacent to the footpath here were being grazed and showed signs of erosion / compaction caused by cows walking along contours – more visible at closer inspection in the following photos.
These flat, greener areas may be treated with fertiliser / planted with legumes
Damper, flat areas from a distance may look superficially “healthy” due to greener hues

Seasonally waterlogged areas, like this one are vulnerable to vegetation damage by trampling and the relative greenness of previous 2 photos belies this damage


Compaction along the contours of the slopes visible as horizontal ridges typical of grazed alpine areas visited can be seen. The impression of short cropped vegetation compared with ungrazed areas later is evident. I observed dispersed herds here of up to 20-30 annimals approximately.


Compaction can lead to erosion. Some closer views of erosion in previous photo.


Highly denuded area on J├Ągerkamp


Aber nicht nur! “Hikers taking short-cuts destroy the vegetation – please stay on the path!” But not only hikers! One could argue after looking at the evidence that the cows (human-induced problem) cause more and that over a much wider area.


Erosion is generally less pronounced on flatter areas, like this one near to Geitau in a valley at 780m (this field may be a fertilised). Formerly this would have been forest). For this reason, farmers are encouraged not to graze their animals on the steeper slopes. In practice however in the areas visited this doesn’t seem to have worked very well.


A steep slope, typically ungrazed by cows at least. Even from a distance there is an impression of higher, lusher vegetation in open areas (excluding exposed rock) than on lower grazed slopes. Scree slopes and erosion on such steep flanks as these are often natural or mainly natural, unless the original forest cover has been removed for grazing / forestry or other purposes. See discussion and background.


Low-cropped vegetation – close-up view.



Here we can see some stumps of former trees. The best erosion protection is natural forest with large trees – gone to make way for grazing and for commercial timber.



Note the high, lush vegetation. More protection from erosion (none observed except for hiking path-related), more stabile for plants and higher trophic levels as a result.


Developing vegetation


Bodenschneid, near Fischhausen-Neuhaus 10.08.2022 (max 1669m)


Some of these flatter areas in these higher valleys showed signs of damp soils – to be expected – so grazing areas like this are typically greener in hot, dry summers and probably less subject to erosion but also typically short-cropped. I observed dispersed herds of up to 20-40 annimals very approximately in the lower pastures.


Closer inspection reveals a lot of soil disturbance (micro-erosion) and compaction.


A closer look reveals a lot of disturbed soil and erosion.


Erosion/compaction along the contours can still be seen from this distance on the slope to the right. The enclosed field to right of building shows signs of regenerating, “rested”┬á vegetation and/or additional planting with legumes and/or being treated with fertiliser (a possible explanation for the more intensive green), the latter often being problematic and suffering species loss. 10 The yellow-green area to the left shows signs of damp soils due to water catchment topography, less subject to erosion, but still subject to compaction and excessive vegetation damage therefore possible species loss.


This field appears to be planted with leguminous species for grazing purposes and perhaps winter feed. Planting legumes such as clover can be beneficial for soil health but is presumably an impracticable solution for large, uneven or steep alpine areas and requires additional costs and manpower.


A closer look at the enclosed area in previous photo reveals high density of clover. No signs of erosion were found. Only 2 cows were on the field and it is assumed that it is used sparingly, hence enclosed.


Outside of previous enclosure, showing bare soil and signs of trampling.


Common trampling signs, especially on wet ground on slopes or resting places.


The remaining larger plants are assumed to be indigestible for cows like these thistles in following 2 images.


Enclosed field in foreground, probably seeded with legumes, possibly fertilised..


Note the erosion along the watercourse in foreground. Water access for cows in the hot, dry summer of 2022 will have undoubtedly been an issue as well as the erosion and compaction caused by cows accessing such a water source.


Here and closer in the following 3 photos we can see an abundance of dandelions which are an indicator species for compacted soils.


Strips of erosion are clearly visible to the right of centre.

Here we can see the stark contrast between forest growth in enclosed area and eroded grazing area.


Resting places for cows (and other livestock) are typically more heavily eroded, like this one.



Just below the highest slopes I only saw and heard 3-5 cows. Vegetation reflected this, becoming more lush and higher with less signs of cow dung or tracks made by cows. It was also possible to see stark differences between grazed and ungrazed or less-grazed areas adjacent to one another.

Here we can see regenerating forest in the foreground and beyond the electric fence (across centre of image) is a an assumed lower level grazing (I only saw 3-5 cows at this altitude). The difference is still very obvious.


FIG. 1 Ungrazed steep flanks showing strong signs of erosion. See discussion.


For a further comparison: how regenerating forest can look (foreground). This and next image were taken at lower altitude than the pastures.


Forest floor at lower altitude


The long grass of ungrazed areas gives a furry impression from a distance.


More signs of forest (climax) vegetation developing.


Mini-forest understorey (also following 2 images). The brown areas are not bare earth, but leaf-litter.

“Furry” flank


Woody regeneration visible.




Because of increasingly hot and dry weather in the mix of extreme events caused by climate change, scorched south facing slopes like this one are becoming more common. Undoubtedly, originally this would have been covered with cooling forest – at this altitude (approx. 1600m) – with a fair amount of deciduous trees. No evidence of grazing animals.


One of the hay meadows presumably used for animal feed at the base of the mountains. A huge amount of land for a very few calories that was originally forest, a much-needed carbon sink.


Kramerspitz, near Garmisch 12.08.2022 (observations at approx 1400m)


Open area in forest typical on the south flank of this mountain:


Seekarkopf, near Lenggries 14.08.2022 (max 1601m)


Highly denuded, grazed landscape is obvious. Erosion along the compacted contour paths visible.



Ritzaualm near Kufstein 08.08.2022 (approx 1160m)


Micro erosion widespread. All grazed areas showed marked erosion, especially acute in following images.



The field on the right is possibly a fertilised field for silage (animal feed ) as it appeared at closer inspection to have few species, was close-cropped, and compared to surrounding grazed areas, blanket, intensive green in appearance whilst similar topography (slope angle, compass orientation). Also possibly there are planted legumes like clover.


This area was fenced off and no grazing animals were visible. The vegetation is lusher than the visible adjacent grazing areas and seems to be growing back on eroded patches, i.e. looks very untypical, so presumably it is being allowed to regenerate. It mayalso have been treated.


Ungrazed enclosure and possible silage-production field in the middle of this photo like the one mentioned previously.


Another silage / hay meadow.


Traditional method of hay cutting. This is often still used on steeper slopes which don’t allow access of machines.


Most of this landscape below the tree line would have been previously forested, looking more similar to this view on the left, with the exception of course of rocky areas.



There is a common notion that all is well with dairy from the Alps because the animals supposedly graze on “natural, biodiverse “pastures and are free to roam around at will. The industry is keen to paint a rosy picture of sustainability and protection of biodiversity by their system wherever they can. Lured by alpine cheeses and other dairy products, and a vision of pretty, flower filled meadows in the sunshine occupied by happy, lazily chewing cows bearing tinkling bells with a backdrop of impressive mountain peaks, it is easy for a dairy-loving or mountain-loving person to be swayed by positive marketing messages from businesses whose success relies upon being believed to be ethical and “green”. 1 It’s hard or boring to look into the details of what is actually going on and have one’s beliefs and habits challenged, especially when it comes to taste. Additionally, a tendency to view concepts like local, traditional, cultural and artisan as always purely positive, only help further cement these habits and beliefs. Animal agriculture is a vast industry encompassing many larger and smaller companies, suffers from greenwashing and is protected by lobbyists just like any large market sector 2 regardless of individual business size.

So what is truth and what is fiction?

As a keen hiker, I decided to do a little observational “study” on the question in the summer of 2022. I wanted to compare grazed and ungrazed open areas via photographs to get an impression of the stability and diversity, with particular focus on levels of erosion and compaction of the soil and height and density of vegetation. I documented the areas at the next 5 sites where I simply wanted to have an enjoyable hike. The sites were not specifically chosen for the study itself.

This isn’t a rigourous scientific study by any means but at least provides some clear visual and circumstantial impressions and draws on background literature for conclusions.

Before globalisation and the onset of modern transport, many people were often reliant upon small numbers of farm animals to see them through times of food shortage and to get enough caloric input. The food system wasn’t propped up with tax-payers’ money in subsidies. Whether or not other agricultural methods with fewer or no animals may have met their needs is debatable. However, in the modern era this system is no longer relevant as practically nobody is living such a self-sufficient lifestyle and the options matching the more comfortable lifestyle that the vast majority want, include far more efficient and ethical systems than using animal agriculture to provide food.3 In Austria for example, the standardized grassland area per animal is between 2 and 4 hectares in the alpine regions and this illustrates the low caloric output per given area typical of dairy shown by many studies. 4 This low output also needs to be seen in the context of further major implications of such a food system: climate change, biodiversity 5 , health impacts from typical consumption of animal products 6 and ethics towards animals. 7 This could potentially even be extended to the costs of pandemics like Covid-19: even though this might be off the radar at first consideration, on closer inspection it becomes evident that it is is a very related topic.8 A holistic approach is much needed in science generally wherever possible and the highest priority should be the common good when determining solutions.

Problems with grazing by farm animals in the Alps, as in mountains elsewhere, are well-documented and can translate as soil erosion; loss of soil fertility, humus and nutrients; reduced soil thickness; smaller rootable space; reduced water reservoir of the soil and the soil drying out faster.┬á9 Biodiversity loss within the grazing system is a widespread problem, too. 10 36 Reduction in stability and the aforementioned issues have significant cost implications including for Alpine farming itself – loss of earnings; damage repair and for the public: landslides, mudslides, avalanches, sedimentation of watercourses, cleaning of streets, destruction of paths and other infrastructure. In an attempt to manage erosion and/or improve productivity, some farmers apply fertilisers which can aggravate the problem. 11

Pastures in mountains are frequently a product of clearing or degeneration of original, natural forest – especially in subalpine areas – which is one of the best stabilising forces, acting as watershed management, source of biodiversity, soil integrity and development, direct cooling, carbon sink and prevention of erosion and reduction of landslides and avalanches. 12 Natural forest provides necessary shelter and food for many birds and animals. Only approximately 665 ha of pristine forest still exist in the Alps although there is still a lot of biodiverse seminatural forest. Monocultural, industrial plantations are also common but can be very detrimental to biodiversity. Also the practice of clearfelling and the risk of complete wipeout by pests pose significant risks to the stability of soils in such plantations.13 The “cultural landscapes” discussed later, of much more open area generally is a product of the Early and High Middle Ages. The introduction of cattle, horse, sheep and especially goats into forests led to significant destruction thereof in these times. 14

According to one analysis, an effective avalanche barrier costs over half a million euros per hectare. Three quarters of avalanches in Bavaria originate in formally forested areas. Reforesting (i.e. the re-creation of semi-natural or natural, diverse forest) could therefore deal with three quarters of avalanche paths.15 Truely natural alpine meadows are also a phenomenon, are fragile and can also be quickly eroded, most notably by grazing sheep but they are also destroyed by unnatural afforesting and ski-developments. Resting places for livestock can cause significant erosion and long-term loss of biodiversity, such as grazing sheep in Wildengundkopf/Allg├Ąu and Hirschbichl/Ammergebirge. Although in Europe there are no longer entire mountain flanks covered with sheep, nature conservation and effective regulation is still very challenging, especially in the south-west Alps. 16

The presence of livestock means the absence of many wild animals. Statistics from S├╝dtirol in Austria in 2019 reveal that in total, 86,477 farm animals were brought onto Alpine pastures including 44,777 cows. In comparison, there are only 2000 Ibex and 5,500 Ptarmigan in the region. Visitors are far less likely to see these wild species than livestock. 17 Stocking density in the high valley of Userental in Switzerland has doubled since 1950 (approximately seven times as many sheep) 20.

Cows have become approx. 25-40% heavier over the years adding trampling pressure. 18 Cattle paths along slopes can significantly alter water and sediment flow by compacting and damaging the turf and creating stepping holes in which water can gather. Increasingly large parts of these tracks can slide down and ultimately cause larger landslides. 19 Slopes at risk of avalanche and landslides are also being regularly grazed which in the past were predominantly mown and where grazing was limited to short periods in early summer and autumn. Such low intensity applications may prevent tussocks of grass forming which, when combined with ice and snow, may be torn out by downwards creeping snowfields to create eroded patches. However, with increasing temperatures, any benefits accrued in terms of stability by low-level grazing appear to be declining because of diminishing root density in upper layers of soil. 20 There is a cut-off point at which erosion threatens the stability of the ecosystem. Compaction of soils increases erosion risk due to lower water retention. 21

The argument of sustainability used by proponents of pasture-fed livestock is mainly a myth in our system. Aside from significant natural climatic shifts like ice ages, or those causing flooding, natural systems that have evolved for millennia tend to be stable or evolving towards a stable equilibrium i.e. they tend towards being self-supporting. Increasing erosion in the Alps is a man-made, destructive problem and a major component is current densities of livestock. Only very low grazing densities that mimick natural systems with wild grazers could be considered as approaching a natural system and even then there are significant differences. To illustrate: the numerous wild grazers of natural savannas have coevolved together with their food-plants and predators over a much longer period of time than domestic livestock with theirs. The pasture-fed scenario is one where natural predators and grazers (competition) have generally been removed, either actively or passively e.g. due to forest clearance, and the physiology, behaviour and feeding requirements of domesticated livestock vary considerably from the wild animals that they have replaced. 22 “Grass-fed” supporters like to claim that their system represents a natural cycle despite actual, often substantial hidden inputs like externally-sourced feed and fertiliser (“ghost-acres”) 23, and their system is essentially being robbed of nutrients as carcasses are not returned to the soil and because of the high turnover of animals at young ages due to forced breeding and extraction. 24

Nor does the argument for increased biodiversity hold:

– any gains through open pastures occupied by low livestock density in the past are currently being lost due to higher density grazing as well as other factors already mentioned.

– biodiversity of the whole ecosystem, and not just its subdivisions must be weighed up in the context of the other major global issues mentioned elsewhere that also have local consequences. Global biodiversity can suffer from efforts to promote biodiverse but highly inefficient food systems that produce methane and prevent reforestation.

– even with the elimination of low density grazing, it is not always clear that biodiversity decreases long-term. 25

– biodiversity can increase initially due to natural reforestation before it decreases to a certain point with climax forest, and this period can last for a long time. 26

Moreover, regarding climate change, food security 27 and carbon-sinks – there is an urgent need to dramatically reduce methane and reforest, both of which are being prevented by animal agriculture in general 28, in the case of re-wilding due to the enormous land usage needed for grazing / feeding animals first to feed humans. This is also applicable to alpine areas. The IPCC leaked a report in 2022 which ranks the shift to a plant-based diet as having the greatest disruptive potential. 29 As extreme weather patterns become more frequent, we need to create more stability in vegetation on mountain slopes to protect watersheds and prevent landslides and avalanches, and to provide immediate cooling, all of which have enormous cost implications.

Additionally, there is the ethical aspect of needless exploitation of other sentient beings – supported by taxpayers’ money in subsidies – for reasons of taste, profit, culture and tradition alone. Artificial insemination of cows (as with pigs) is standard practice. The male calves don’t produce milk so are normally separated from their mothers up to a few days after birth and sent to be slaughtered at 8 months 30 31. In farming practice, dairy cows live an average of five to six years which is about a third of their natural lifespan. 32 They are slaughtered because they can no longer produce milk after being made pregnant as often as possible. They are essentially spent. Abuses of the system and failed stunnings are frequent in slaughterhouses as is psychological trauma of workers. 33


The assumptions were as follows:

– areas being grazed were where livestock was visible or audible within a visible area, and were free to roam and graze up to fences or walls.

– ungrazed areas were where no animals were visible or audible within visible area area, and where there were marked lack of signs of grazing typical of grazed areas: no paths (other than the hiking path), no signs of dung. This included some enclosures and a few open areas in forest.

The density of animals was noted for all areas observed, including for transitional areas (grazed to ungrazed within a small area), typically on steeper, higher slopes. The densiy, being almost impossible to calculate within the scope of this study counted only as impressions.

Sings of erosion, compaction of soils and vegetation, as well as height of vegetation was also noted (apparent in photos).



The grazed vegetation in the Alps was very short cropped except for what I presume were inedible or non-favoured plants to the grazers like thistles that were scattered around. Erosion was very visibly evident, As was compaction of vegetation and soil, shown by widespread abundance of contour ridges and frequent abundance of dandelions, an indicator species for compacted soils. 33 Within up to perhaps 20-30 hectares of land or more (difficult to assess) that was occupied by cows and showed typical signs of grazing, the numbers of cows only ranged up to about 30 as far as I could see and hear, i.e. small number of animals for large area with significant damage to the soil and vegetation.

The ungrazed areas in all cases were markedly more lush and no erosion was visible – with exception of the steepest slopes, most likely originally cleared of forest (Fig.1), where some erosion is to be expected – implying greater stability of soil. A superficial look showed a diverse array of species in these areas. In the case of the steep slope in fig. 1, biodiversity could not be ascertained at all. From a distance, however, higher vegetation growth was evident between the eroded patches, than in grazed areas.



Limitations of study

These include:

– unknown exact density of grazing animals above the number seen or heard. Animals that were only heard were only counted as one coming from any specific direction.

– unknown density over the previous years. From the literature referenced here, it would appear that with the exception of severely eroded areas, that vegetation can generally grow back on a yearly basis if grazing is sufficiently reduced or absent. 12 Whether or not the compaction and erosion was even worse in previous years is unknown.

– unknown if grazing formerly present on areas apparently currently ungrazed, like in Fig 1

– unknown detailed biodiversity specifics. It is assumed that at the level of erosion and compaction occurring, that biodiversity will decrease over the long term in areas grazed at the current rate. In comparison, the allowance of regrowth of climax vegetation (forest / shrub, grassland) is assumed to have the effect of increasing and stabilising biodiversity in the short and long-term. A comparison of these two scenarios with much lower grazing density allowing vegetation to recover with 1. livestock or 2. wild grazers in equilibrium with natural, reintroduced predators would be an interesting follow-up. However, in view of the urgency of the climate and ecological crisis and large amount of evidence pointing towards plant-based agriculture, the need is to do such comparisons is overshadowed by an urgency for a rewilding programmes and reallocation of subsidies for any possible plant-based agriculture in the area.

Other factors than grazing or overgrazing, contributing to erosion relevant to the steep slope in Fig.1 could be:

– ski-tours which are becoming increasingly popular in the Alps. However, the sport art is preferred on deep snow which offers a certain layer of protection of the underlying vegetation and soil. This is in contrast with direct disturbance of soil by trampling and grazing cows in grazed areas. Ski resorts are far more intensive and damaging than ski-touring due to concentrated area with high volume of skiers. In this case – not adjacent to any alpine ski resort – the lack of erosion on the north facing flank below the summit of Bodenschneid which is both fairly steep (maybe 400) and where I have seen regular ski tourers, may indicate that this isn’t the main cause of erosion here, a slope of approx 600.

– loss of original forest (see background) and therefore convertion to grassland.

– clear-felling for forestry purposes, but evidently forestry has been absent from this slope for a long time.

– increasing extreme weather events due to climate change that effect steeper slopes like prolonged heavy rainfall, thick snow cover melting quickly with extreme temperature rise.

– hiking pressures / mountain-biking. These also weren’t evident at all on the slope, also neither from regular previous visits.

– abandonment of grazing and/or traditional 2-yearly mowing practices. As mentioned in background, others have argued that this is a factor together with overgrazing. However, it is not clear from these claims how any longer term effects of allowing forest regeneration where applicable would interplay to compensate for erosion effects on the whole, if that was the optimal goal for protection. It is also possible that local seeding with bentgrass Agrostis schraderiana could be a useful solution to quickly cover eroded areas with its runners, as a species is indigenous to the Alps and occurs at this altitude (approx. 1300-1500m) 25 34 The referenced literature also says nothing about:

  • absolutely requiring grazing by livestock to do the job of stabilising steep slope temporarily on the way to reforesting it.
  • allowing and encouraging wild grazers to do the same service. This might be a very feasible scenario, especially if animal agriculture was generally dramatically reduced as is being advised by such institutions as the IPPC, so that reintroduction of- or recolonisation by locally exterminated but potentially ecologically stabilising key species could be allowed in these areas, like bears (to spread shrub seeds) and wolves (to control deer populations). The polemic in media regarding such species as wolves is due in large part to the concerns of animal farmers who see their income being threatened.
  • providing incentives for 2-yearly mowing only, for the purpose of producing green manure for growing crops directly for human consumption rather than feeding animals first.


Several different scenarios become evident as possible solutions to increasing sustainability in alpine areas, feasible in the modern era, to assist the local human populace whilst remedying the broader climate crisis and food security, and to practice ethics towards other sentient beings, especially:

1. Eliminating the application of livestock that cause erosion and compaction even at small densities completely and providing subsidies for more efficient, ethical and sustainable food sources and environmental protection.

2. Reducing the numbers of domestic livestock to the point at which sustainability is no longer a concern – essentially as a non-extractive /non-abusive industry i.e. the animals provide some similar services to what more numerous wild animals in the past might have done by maintaining pockets of open areas which contribute to biodiversity. The animals would be allowed to live out their lives and not be forced bred. Any “extraction” would only come – if at all – at the point of natural death. This could be seen as a temporary solution on the path to establishing wild populations of grazing and predatory species in natural balance, or it could be a long-term solution. However, there might be issues in the latter case with natural population expansion of cow (and other livestock-) populations and how to manage that.

I would argue for option No.1. The sooner we employ plant-based agriculture instead of animal agriculture as a food system, the sooner we can recreate stable ecosystems through rewilding and reintroductions, and the more time we win by creating urgent carbon sinks and stabilising / regenerating protective biodiversity whilst we make a transition to a saner, more equitable global political, economic and social system.


There are several key interest groups that serve to block sustainability for the common good:

– livestock farmers and capitalism

Whilst livestock farmers in Western countries including in the Alps may be keen to promote their products as being sustainable and do indeed employ certain sustainability initiatives that are incentivised by regulations or funding, they are obviously not in favour of anything more sustainable (or ethical) that reduces their profits if they have decided to stick to their current businesses model. Small farmers are increasingly under financial pressure due to e.g. unfairly low prices, have to work very long hours and it is not easy to transform a business. It would involve learning new skills and strategies and possibly investment in new machinery and infrastructure. Subsidies and other policy instruments would be essential here to initiate the changes.

– consumer habits

Although there is a transformation in eating habits towards more plant-based options, the change is not rapid enough to match the environmental crisis. Over 95% of the population in Germany and Austria regularly eat animal products and this is no less in most other industrialised countries. Demand for dairy products that are labelled as “Alpine” will remain too high – partly due to taste reasons and partly because of green- and ethics-washing by the livestock industry – as long as:

– those products are affordable to current consumers;

– plant-based alternatives aren’t attractive enough;

– media coverage exposing the myths, or public activism is too limited in frequency and spread to encourage better consumer choices;

– policies to initiate change through laws and incentives are insufficient or completely absent.

Consumers play a vital function in driving change towards more ethical and sustainable systems.


– perceptions of “cultural landscape” and the tourist industry

The tourist industry is a major source of income in the Alps. A combination of lobbyism and marketing by the tourist industry together with livestock farmers has further strengthened the notion that formally forested pastures with grazing Alpine cows, sheep and goats and unhindered views into the distance are traditional, cultural and therefore entirely valid. Axel Borsdorf aptly named it “Disneyfication” 35 : unnatural landscapes serving as a kind of commercial park and playground. The reasoning and justifications for cultural landscapes are often irrational, arbitrary and superficial. Who defines the starting point of a tradition? Before the Middle Ages, there was far more forest. Most importantly, it is nonsensical to talk about such concepts without a thorough, transparent and honest analysis of costs and benefits of different scenarios and we need solutions based upon prioritisation of necessity that extends to global sustainability. Think global, act local is key. Ultimately, if the life-support system is degenerating, then it is unsustainable. If it is unsustainable then in the long run everybody suffers on balance, humans, animals as well as ecosystems. Prioritising abstract notions and desires based on luxury and privilege above sustainability is therefore absurd. The question of hierarchy of needs and separation of necessity from luxury will be an increasingly hot topic. Meeting the fundamental needs for all should be the goal, even if in practice this will be challenging and complex.


Within the limits of this not very rigorous observation,  it was clear that grazing by cattle even the small densities observed could not be described as sustainable or natural in thes 4 subalpine areas cleared of original forest. Diminishing stability of soils and vegetation will eventually cause major financial costs, and also potentially cost of lives due to more frequent and bigger avalanches and landslides. According to the literature and from my own regular hiking experience and knowlege, these are typical subalpine scenarios and montane grasslands are being similarly degraded. With the additional major concerns of especially methane output and habitat loss due to animal farming, this extractive industry presents a major challenge to protecting mountain ecologies in the Alps generally unless at a very low stocking density. Even at current stocking levels it is clear that it is a very inefficient way of providing food. To reduce stocking to sustainable levels, and to adopt the highest standards of animal welfare within the limitations of a system of exploitation would make it even more so, resulting only in premium products available to the more privileged. This further demonstrates an urgent need to transition to plant-based agriculture, supported by much scientific literature, and in view of the abuses of other sentient creatures for non-essential reasons, the dairy industry does significantly far more harm than good. We are reliant upon farmers but then only when they run sustainable and ethical systems. Agricultural subsidies for the Alps as elsewhere should be directed towards training farmers to adopt the right practices to grow food and/or become environmental stewards. They should naturally be paid fair wages for this work. The common good (humans, non-human animals and environment) must be set as a priority over arbitary concepts such as specific traditions, profit or personal culinary desires if we are to see a liveable future on this planet.



1. examples of marketing with omissions of uncomfortable facts like: forced-breeding; slaughter at young age; removal of calves from mother and their slaughter – or vague statements / no statements on: methane outputs, comparison of carbon sequestration with re-wilding:

Die gute Milch machts! ÔÇô Die Milchwerke Berchtesgadener Land setzen auf Nachhaltigkeit


3. see “inefficiency”

4. p23







11. 134

12. pp10,27



15. p120

16. pp 117, 120-121, 157


18. p37

19. pp3,10

Impact of cattle treading on hill land 1 Soil damage patterns and pasture status.pdf




23. Monbiot, G. (2022) Regenesis, Penguin Books Ltd


25. p119

26. p106









35. p121


Regenerative Farming: For Taste Buds and Profit or Ethics and Sustainability?

(related topics)

The terms “regenerative farming” or “holistic (grazing) management” are increasingly in vogue as the world tries to grapple with the stark reality of degraded soils, climate change and mass extinctions. It is often touted as a pantheon solution to feeding the world and storing carbon. As always, reality is far more complex and vested interests and belief systems and addictions are often lurking in the background of “breakthrough” concepts involving eating. Here is some discussion from both the perspectives of the ecological scientific community at large and proponents of animal-based regenerative grazing (RF is used here) and veganic systems.


– How much carbon is stored – is RF the best method of storage?

– Are grazing animals always needed to replenish soils and produce food?

– Do plants need grazers to flourish? What happens to “rested land”?

– What is veganic agriculture and how does it compare with (higher) animal-based systems?

– How do ecological regional variations play into these systems?

– How scalable is animal-based RF as a strategy to feed the world?

– How much land does it need per calorie output?

– What are all the inputs and outputs in the system (hidden costs)?

– How does it compare with re-wilding in playing a sequestration role?

– How much re-wilding is prevented by land-requirements for RF?

– How many wild-grazers are displaced or prevented from reintroduction by RF?

– Where do the studies claiming benefits of RF get their funding – Are there any conflicts of interest to examine?


Key media promoting regenerative farming are the films “Kiss the Ground” (e.g. Netflix)

and a TED talk by “holistic management” proponent Allan Savory

How to green the world’s deserts and reverse climate change | Allan Savory



Overview of peer-reviewed articles and criticisms of regenerative agriculture claims


2- part criticism

“Dr. Sylvia Fallon of the Natural Resources Defense Council has shown, symbiosis between grazing herds and grasses has historically worked best to sequester carbon when the animals lived the entirety of their lives within the ecosystem, their carcasses rotted and returned their accumulated nutrients into the soil, and human intervention was minimal to none. It is unclear, given that Savory has identified this type of arrangement as his ecological model, how marketing cattle for food would be consistent with these requirements. Cows live up to 20 years of age, but in most grass-fed systems, they are removed when they reach slaughter weight at 15 months. Cheating the nutrient cycle at the heart of land regeneration by removing the manure-makers and grass hedgers when only 10 percent of their ecological ÔÇťvalueÔÇŁ has been exploited undermines the entire idea of efficiency that Savory spent his TED talk promoting. ”

“SavoryÔÇÖs narrative is compelling if you accept his idea that deserts are but rarely natural. For him ground that is bare, without grass, is desert and desert is not natural. However, deserts are indeed natural, and they are not simply bare ground areas. Secondly, he believes that deserts and desertification are the same thing. They are not. In fact there is much dispute over the definition of desertification. Wikipedia says there are over a hundred definitions.”

Deserts are indeed natural. They have existed for millions of years before any human influence. They have their own ecosystems, and they, like grasslands, can be degraded

Allan Savory: Myth And Reality

“In Savory’s universe, ungrazed land, known as “rested” land, will always wither away. “It’s just wrong,” said Brewer. A substantial number of studies on desert grassland have found that with rest, grass cover “increases dramatically,” while “intensive grazing delays this recovery.”

“There are relatively few (11) peer-reviewed studies on the effects of holistic grazing that are
ÔÇśapprovedÔÇÖ by the Savory Institute, i.e., included
in Savory Institute Research Portfolio”

“Three quantitative meta-analysis models were used to assess data sets from literature between 1972 and 2016. Weighted mean differences (effect sizes) between HPG and continuous grazing showed that there was no difference in plant basal cover, plant biomass and animal gain responses (p > 0.05). Thus, from the balance of studies, if animal impact is occurring during HPG, it has no effect on production. As interesting as the overall result is the significant between-study heterogeneity assessed using CochranÔÇÖs Q (p = 0.007 to <0.0001). Studies with positive effect sizes tended to have higher precipitation (p < 0.05), suggesting that only some rangelands have the resources to support HPG. ”

Decline of elk and neocolonial aspects of “grass-fed”


“Savory asserts that his grazing practices are an attempt to mimic the bison that once roamed in the west. Apparently the cows can take the place of the bison in the ecosystem. However, ÔÇťmost plants west of the Continental divide evolved in the absence of large herding animalsÔÇŁ┬á(Wuerthner, 2003). ÔÇťWhen Savory argues that centuries of large-herd grazing in the west maintained healthy grassland, he reinvents history. Until domestic livestock were introduced to the region some 150 years ago, the Great Basin and the desert Southwest were not heavily grazed for 5,000 to 10,000 yearsÔÇŁ┬á(Raether, 2002). Taylor┬á(2001)┬ácites another source disproving this, Mack and Thompson’s 1982 (Am. Nat. 119:757) classic, which showed grazing adapted grasses of the prairie province were the only ones grazed. In the southwest, large grazing animals, such as bison, have not been around in any numbers since the Pleistocene.

Savory maintains this reasoning in why the land should not be overrested. He argues that without the presence of livestock the land will deteriorate. He claims that the bison also kept the land from deteriorating. However, the land cannot be overrested because all rangelands are grazed. Other herbivores graze as well, not only large livestock. In Yellowstone National Park researchers found that the biomass of grasshoppers is greater then all the other large grazing animals combined. In fact, the grasshoppers exceed the others by three times and are a major consumer of the plants┬á(Wuerthner, 2003). In addition, ÔÇťThis concept has no basis in science and appropriately perhaps, none is cited. Over-rest is a value judgment by ranchers, who object to abundant dead foliage and unpalatability to livestock. Dead foliage has ecological and autecological values, such as carrying grassfires that prevent woody encroachment and protecting grass meristems from freezing, grazing and droughtÔÇŁ┬á(Taylor, 2001)

“rewilding instead focuses on reintroducing and/or better supporting animals originally meant to be in specific spaces. ÔÇťIn some areas, such as historically grazed grasslands and plains, removal of livestock and restoring native grazers like wild bison is one of the best ways to rewild the land,ÔÇŁ Molidor states. And in areas not previously grazed by native animals, she adds, ÔÇťremoval of livestock alone, or removal of invasive plants, is a huge first step in habitat restoration.ÔÇŁ

Comparing cattle and bison numbers

Bison numbers historically: 30-60 million estimated pre 1800.

Cattle and calves in the USA 2001 2021
93.8 million–since-2001/

Pre 1800 there was 1. much more natural forest cover, storing carbon, 2. much smaller human population size and extraction of large grazers for food etc. Consider the resulting changes in methane outputs.


Is “regenerative grazing” the new “clean coal”?

A widely cited study promoting regenerative grazing

2020 White Oak Pastures and General Mills study


Analysis of above study. Hidden costs


“Savory asserts that his grazing practices are an attempt to mimic the bison that once roamed in the west. Apparently the cows can take the place of the bison in the ecosystem. However, ÔÇťmost plants west of the Continental divide evolved in the absence of large herding animalsÔÇŁ┬á(Wuerthner, 2003). ÔÇťWhen Savory argues that centuries of large-herd grazing in the west maintained healthy grassland, he reinvents history. Until domestic livestock were introduced to the region some 150 years ago, the Great Basin and the desert Southwest were not heavily grazed for 5,000 to 10,000 yearsÔÇŁ┬á(Raether, 2002). Taylor┬á(2001)┬ácites another source disproving this, Mack and Thompson’s 1982 (Am. Nat. 119:757) classic, which showed grazing adapted grasses of the prairie province were the only ones grazed. In the southwest, large grazing animals, such as bison, have not been around in any numbers since the Pleistocene.

Savory maintains this reasoning in why the land should not be overrested. He argues that without the presence of livestock the land will deteriorate. He claims that the bison also kept the land from deteriorating. However, the land cannot be overrested because all rangelands are grazed. Other herbivores graze as well, not only large livestock. In Yellowstone National Park researchers found that the biomass of grasshoppers is greater then all the other large grazing animals combined. In fact, the grasshoppers exceed the others by three times and are a major consumer of the plants┬á(Wuerthner, 2003). In addition, ÔÇťThis concept has no basis in science and appropriately perhaps, none is cited. Over-rest is a value judgment by ranchers, who object to abundant dead foliage and unpalatability to livestock. Dead foliage has ecological and autecological values, such as carrying grassfires that prevent woody encroachment and protecting grass meristems from freezing, grazing and droughtÔÇŁ┬á(Taylor, 2001)

The Four Winds. The Shaman’s Odyssey into the Amazonas by Alberto Villoldo

My review:

If we look at models of society which show that living in harmony with the environment is possible, then we will inevitably concern ourselves with matriarchal, indigenous peoples and their worldview. Pivotal to these societies are the role of Shamen in bringing mystic wisdom for the purposes of healing and development to their people. The spiritual reverence for mother Earth and the life she bestows is upheld and nurtured through shamanistic traditions. The concept of giving back to nature, something which is notably absent in Western culture, is fundamental here, as is the understanding of unity, finding one's place in the universe and connecting with all there is. If this is what we call primitive, then we need to find our way back to our primitive origins. Without a spiritual view of our natural world, we are only left with mechanical explanations, scientifically based statistics, which leave us feeling incomplete or cold to the truth of our inherent responsibility.

The Four Winds. The Shaman's Odyssey into the Amazonas by Alberto Villoldo is an insightful lesson in the discovery of what is lacking in the Western understanding of nature and life in its essence, and how the subconscious can be tapped into redress the imbalance in order to reconnect.

It is an account of an American psychologist, educated in a typical Western, academic mindset, and his search for greater knowledge of cognitive science through personally encountering shamanistic voyages into the subconscious, led and aided by a master Shaman in Peru. Starting from a “rational" standpoint, his motivation and meetings lead to a spiritual awakening with its many surprises and revelations. We are taken through the Medicine Wheel – a four-point process involving departure from old, incomplete or illusionary beliefs in the South; to overcoming the fear of death – the greatest fear of a belief system centred in the physical – in the West; to retrieving pure spiritual messages in the North of a new path to be taken, and finally to the East where the hardest task is presented of determinedly putting these messages into new actions and habits. There are plenty of parallel perceptions here to modern therapeutic approaches that focus on becoming a fulfilled human being, it is simply a different set of symbols and more usage of them.

There are many poignant passages in the book. What particularly stood out for me, were the references of the shaman – also a philosophy lecturer at Cuzco University – to the western doctrines of a patriarchal church that so ingrained the notion into our psyche of humans being cast out of the Garden of Eden. Could it be that this image led to nature being perceived as an enemy, and therefore that would explain why the Earth is treated so abysmally? Is it a fear of nature which has subconsciously been carried through generations from a distorted religion, into a "new" scientific, reductionist, mechanistic view of nature which perceives so much competition, aggression and survival of the fittest?

Another enlightening point made was that delusionary mental illness is not regarded as such in Peruvian, Amazonian indigenous societies. It is seen simply as what it is: a trip into the subconscious, which is actually encouraged to take place, with the guidance of a more grounded person of experience, rather than to be blocked off, numbed or bottled up with medicine. In this way, crazy dream imagery becomes a source of learning and new wisdom, rather than something to be fearful of.

This frank, moving and honest account by the American author reveals a gem of universal understanding to be learned from by an ailing, separatist world model. It reads like it good novel and the colourful imagery and symbolism makes for a worthwhile accompaniment to the most important core message of the book.

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