Coronavirus and other pathogen outbreaks from animal-farming /-consumption

(links to media on pathogens below)

We can see below the dangers of farming and eating animals just from zoonotic diseases beside supporting the greatest damage to the environment, to health and animal suffering. The current covid-19 pandemic scenario was warned of 2007. Without animal farming (especially industrial) and consumption of animal-products, these outbreaks are highly unlikely to have occurred. Meat markets / factory farms and even slaughterhouses are often infested with pathogens. Abnormal high density of infected animals, their transportation and contact with humans results in optimal pathogen-spreading and mutations. An additional dilemma is the high usage of antibiotics in industrial farms to fight pathogens, which is the main cause of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, considered as a major threat by WHO, potentially killing millions in the coming years.1 2 3 4 “Drug-resistant infections know no borders and do not respect barriers between industry, regulators and buyers, or between animals, humans and their wider environment”5


Spanish flu 1918 – wild birds to poultry farms to humans
https://www.nature.com/news/study-revives-bird-origin-for-1918-flu-pandemic-1.14723

How Denmark significantly reduced its death-rate by cutting out meat, alcohol and reducing dairy herds to one third due to wartime shortages:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikkel_Hindhede

In Denmark, for example, the pandemic claimed just 0.2% of the population

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20181023-the-places-that-escaped-the-spanish-flu

“Recent studies have, by comparing international mortality levels for 1918, noted that Denmark stands out as the country with the lowest levels of excess mortality [2,3].”

https://paa2008.princeton.edu/papers/81563

 

17% death rate reduction from non-epidemic causes 1917 and 34% in 1918 (pandemic year)

https://futurefood.org/DissertationSchmidinger.pdf?fbclid=IwAR1xc91WQxn1KCn3l7FDeM6Q8k7eskNnFNldbJqF8vRmBlY24pljoJooLaQ


SARS 2002 – bats/civet cat-eating/farming to humans

https://www.who.int/ith/diseases/sars/en/


swine flu 2009 – pig farms to humans
https://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/information_h1n1_virus_qa.htm

swine flu origins in intensive pig farming
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2009/apr/28/swine-flu-intensive-farming-caroline-lucas


Current threat and example of continuous problem: Bird flu Germany – backyard chickens
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-birdflu-germany/germany-reports-outbreak-of-h5n8-bird-flu-in-backyard-poultry-oie-idUSKBN204254

Avian flu origins in animal-farming

https://www.scidev.net/global/livestock/feature/swine-fever-raises-fears-of-bird-flu-pandemic-1x.html

Fatal strain of bird flu outbreak S.Carolina

https://eu.desmoinesregister.com/story/money/agriculture/2020/04/11/bird-flu-deadly-strain-confirmed-south-carolina-first-severe-case-since-2017/2976912001/?fbclid=IwAR3i3rq9-E0CfEzKLT83Ywnt8G1ihdZt1kLtwjKEDnQNUSe46TBUCKPIj2M

General outbreak (in German)

https://www.verbraucherzentrale.de/wissen/lebensmittel/lebensmittelproduktion/h5n8erreger-vogelgrippe-ist-wieder-in-deutschland-angekommen-44088?fbclid=IwAR3nb8SqYw2nxUsObtIeM4HmUJC8WqZ7njspffPlralU3eigEaL1T6I4vAo

African Swine Fever outbreak in Poland April 2020

African Swine Fever Outbreak Discovered In Poland


Antibioticresistant bacteria in pig feces as fertiliser (German)

https://www.n-tv.de/wissen/Schweinehalter-verbreiten-resistente-Keime-article21731067.html?fbclid=IwAR0J2j2Km_CrwZpldixZEhl5dC7yszOYw6m6queZpemYVJCeru66tf0E5C8


Christian Drosten, virologist at Berliner Charité (article in German)

„Der aktuelle Grund sollte jetzt sehr überzeugend sein, notwendige Veränderungen in Angriff zu nehmen. Das Problem ist der Fleischhunger in der sich ausweitenden Gesellschaft.“

“The current reason should now be very convincing to make the necessary changes. The problem is the desire for meat in an expanding society. ”

https://www.stern.de/gesundheit/virologe-christian-drosten—wir-haben-in-deutschland-einige-vorteile-gegenueber-anderen-laendern–9190450.html?fbclid=IwAR3Fuep6cZvjmSR4xriumI-tVkn7ReXjvHy8Vrrv-ha3gqvMmuEFnBCBE_w


MERS (H1N1) 2012 – bats to camel farms to humans
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/5/140513-mers-saudi-camels-health-contagion-spillover-bats-disease/?fbclid=IwAR3OLavNP6fNht42PIupqvVbatIBKiM8YW-VEKeSsqDa8gcpshYbFOVlRUE


Covid-19 (“Coronavirus”) 2019 – bat-eating / pangolin farms
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00364-2?fbclid=IwAR3U8ebx6B5HBMXjrPq9W6HZJerxtCOroSqE1FMGykjBsZkkXLCdIZucWs4

“for a precursor virus … an animal host would probably have to have a high population density (for natural selection to be efficient)…”.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0820-9?fbclid=IwAR2X6-6n6raHTKcORVtdmRQffMnG9En6mxMWFq3wbo8SyhxDTJbncnCxhSc

Spread via slaughterhouses?

“the single-biggest source of coronavirus cases in the U.S.”

Smithfield Hit With Lawsuit for Failing to Protect Pork Factory Workers From COVID-19

“Largest outbreak in Canada”  (….”In the U.S., rates of coronavirus infection are 75 per cent higher in rural counties housing large beef, pork and poultry-processing plants”)

https://thetyee.ca/News/2020/04/24/Alberta-Meat-Packers-COVID-Outbreak/?fbclid=IwAR3A8d2Bp2mWYtYjiPObuqpdIu__KMLStrNbi4A4Z-A6amYi5ujJc7-9daI

 

Outbreak in German slaughterhouse:300 cases (in German)

Rund 300 Mitarbeiter positiv Heftiger Corona-Ausbruch in Schlachthof

https://www.n-tv.de/panorama/Heftiger-Corona-Ausbruch-in-Schlachthof-article21746955.html?utm_medium=Social&utm_source=Facebook&fbclid=IwAR1G-hZhDBHW9KVmF2KT1ZUhEbij05V8kAaBGK25DW2kGbU_mMLZinTuExA#Echobox=1588148137

“Schlachthöfe und Fleischbetriebe entwickeln sich gerade zum Corona-Brennpunkt im ganzen Land”

“Löhne unter dem Mindestlohn, Massenunterkünfte, kaum Erholung für kranke Kollegen”

https://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/schlachthoefe-fleischproduktion-missstaende-coronavirus-1.4902875?fbclid=IwAR3129zBEwRZ_a-8G1UhYdknKU2xTfHQxVBs-ly-0_Srwok35eEjh89oIjY

 

652 Infizierte

“Corona-Massenausbruch bei Tönnies: Hunderte infiziert – die Ansteckungsrate ist enorm – heftige Konsequenzen drohen”

https://www.ovb-online.de/weltspiegel/coronavirus-guetersloh-deutschland-toennies-fleischfabrik-zahlen-aktuell-ausbruch-schulen-kitas-news-zr-13801264.amp.html?fbclid=IwAR2tAvRtxfDDcieifMyKNmr8egcVkwy__1ZpOTVny-rpQPT4clvGY7ByKyQ

 

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/may/14/everyones-on-top-of-you-sneezing-and-coughing-life-inside-irelands-meat-plants-covid-19


bird flu – wild birds to poultry farms to humans
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/260025#1

Spread of bird flu

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_spread_of_H5N1

history

“While most wild birds have only a mild form of the H5N1 strain, once domesticated birds such as chickens or turkeys are infected, H5N1 can potentially become much more deadly because the birds are often in close contact. H5N1 is a large threat in Asia with infected poultry due to low hygiene conditions and close quarters. Although it is easy for humans to contract the infection from birds, human-to-human transmission is more difficult without prolonged contact. However, public health officials are concerned that strains of avian flu may mutate to become easily transmissible between humans.[18”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avian_influenza


HIV and Ebola from bushmeat hunting

https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/coronavirus-uk-pandemics-environmentalists-warning-a9413996.html?fbclid=IwAR3n8BBBqdV4W-wYaU0hkEBA5G97-1axawxDpTlIp3yUHFrPZnlN3zKYKUo


Further Antibiotic Resistance Information

Antibiotic use in animal farming – EU comparison

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/antibiotic-use-in-livestock-in-europe?fbclid=IwAR1qe-3E3xwQeSqvJBqHe_0XXofTJvXgfsTjEDUhEL9k39L8eu3Iz6Prhzs

 

Antibiotic resistance adds to the impact of Covid-19

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/04/antibiotic-treatment-covid-19-complications-could-fuel-resistant-bacteria

Antibiotic resistance: the hidden threat lurking behind Covid-19

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200401-coronavirus-why-death-and-mortality-rates-differ

https://www.24hamburg.de/hamburg/coronavirus-tiere-schlachthof-warnung-multiresistente-keime-soko-tierschutz-friedrich-muelln-zr-90010549.html?fbclid=IwAR3-E0tiVol_LykILWi5AFQd0t21BZSSYCSWsDjmai9IRw8vJ84q4XI33aU

https://sciencenorway.no/antibiotics-crisis-epidemic/multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-when-the-immune-system-during-covid-19-is-attacked-from-two-fronts/1675599?fbclid=IwAR0gTQSZdcJ–SVfDEEXXqKeyO9d4zSWC0XG_wTDX6TvfVltJBpYD-ruPWE

https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/articles/2020/04/27/superbugs-in-the-news-how-covid-19-is-increasing-antibiotic-use

https://www.aidian.eu/news/antimicrobial-resistance-amr-has-a-role-in-covid-19

 

Cardiovascular aspect of covid-19 (another reason for preventative approaches to heart disease)

https://elemental.medium.com/coronavirus-may-be-a-blood-vessel-disease-which-explains-everything-2c4032481ab2


The General Problem:

 

‘We should start thinking about the next one’: Coronavirus is just the first of many pandemics to come, environmentalists warn

https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/coronavirus-uk-pandemics-environmentalists-warning-a9413996.html

 

Coronavirus: Pandemics will be worse and more frequent unless we stop exploiting Earth and animals, top scientists warn

https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/coronavirus-pandemic-virus-disease-wildlife-environment-farming-infectious-a9487926.html

 

Coronavirus: Industrial animal farming has caused most new infectious diseases and risks more pandemics, experts warn

https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/coronavirus-meat-animal-farming-pandemic-disease-wet-markets-a9505626.html?fbclid=IwAR1MWgEtgI-JYzYLgo5PHRn8BNM3PoNxtQQC–CDhCvUokWwWc_B7RB3r60

 

Go vegan or risk further pandemics, experts warn

https://www.independent.co.uk/independentpremium/vegan-campaign-wildlife-trade-market-ban-restrictions-viva-a9490696.html

 

German video summary

 

 

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/one-root-cause-of-pandemics-few-people-think-about/

 

 


List of Zoonotic Diseases (before covid 19)

https://www.hse.gov.uk/agriculture/topics/zoonoses.htm

 

Other pathogens

Salmonella origins in animal-farming, animal manure
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/287/5450/50.full

e.coli origins in animal-farming, animal manure
https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/e-coli

Anthrax origins in animal-farming

https://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/resources/history/index.html


References

1. http://www.fao.org/3/a-bp285e.pdf

2. https://foodandwaterwatch.org/sites/default/files/Antibiotic%20Resistance%20101%20Report%20March%202015.pdf

3. https://www.grain.org/en/article/6240-the-rise-of-the-superbugs-and-why-industrial-farming-is-to-blame

4. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/dec/05/over-use-of-antibiotics-in-farming-is-a-major-new-threat-to-human-health-says-un

5. https://ec.europa.eu/health/amr/sites/amr/files/amr_studies_2015_am-in-agri-and-env.pdf

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